An analysis of louix xiv his absolute monarchy in france
This powerful company represented a rival pole of authority that was often at loggerheads with the Estates, again raising doubts about the viability of a political 'coalition' of the elite. Lynn uses a broader brush and offers a comprehensive picture of the whole seventeenth-century army in the context of the longer history of European warfare.
Louis xiv death
Louis was prepared to take the good with the bad, and handled it well. It transferred the tax burden of new loans onto the peasantry, won reductions from new special taxes, defended old-guard notables holed up in provincial estates, and protected the legal status of officers and corporations just when Louis might have wanted to get rid of them. Roughly 1 million Huguenots lived in France at the time, and many were artisans or other types of skilled workers. On the other hand, the activities and goals of the Council of Commerce challenged the practices of privilege'. Such a massive growth, which supports the traditional view of the rise of the state, inevitably led to changes in organization. Starting in the s these Estates underwrote loans to the king, acquired jurisdiction over tax disputes, and began to oversee roads and public works. Both towns and provinces possessed privileges and powers seemingly from time im memorial that they would not easily relinquish. Provinces had their own regional parlements, their own local Estates, their own sets of laws. Civilian oversight of units in the field advanced, but was held in check by the royal preference for officer initiative. It parallels the exactions from similarly privileged venal officeholders. The first of many obstacles in his life was presented in , when Louis XIII died and left Louis XIV to the throne at the age of 5; causing him to quickly adjust to the King lifestyle. Their two studies, published in and respectively, provide contrasting but not incompatible views of the army of Louis XIV.
The replacement of government ministers, removal of castles, and other financial policies of Colbert did reduce French national debt considerably. Revenues were committed years in advance to financiers at costly rates, and taxes were collected by private consortiums of financiers who siphoned off a sizeable share.
Furthermore, in Burgundy extraordinary demands were financed through the Estates and paid on time according to well-managed loan contracts. Elborg Forster Baltimore, Conroy, Jr Urbana, Far from being a trap for the aristocracy, or a place of senseless posturing, the court at [End Page ] Versailles, in this view, was the central bargaining place for the staffing of a 'sustainable standing force'.
Was louis xvi an absolute monarch
Dee's close examination of the correspondence between Versailles and the province during the War of the Spanish Succession brings home the skill and enterprise of the king's later generation of ministers, who are often undervalued when compared with the famous figures of the first thirty years. A major problem in studies of Louis XIV is precisely how to weigh such traditional, personal modes of functioning against what we know about the undeniable signs of state development: the growth in the size of government agencies, the increasing sophistication of information-collection, or the extension of royal reach into new areas of governance. It is also valid to point to important innovations in the period from to , and to question whether they involved collaboration or merely centralization. Possibly as a [End Page ] result, Normandy paid a much heavier taille. Rowlands's analysis seconds that of Mettam in stressing these traditional elements. It entailed a vastly improved patronage system for the commissioning of officers and commanders, centred on the king himself, the influx of more roturier officers and the beginnings of a coherent system of military ranks. Parrott calls this a 'peculiarly French' problem. Albert Hamscher showed how Louis XIV was working with the Parlement of Paris rather than silencing the judges, and how the royal council supported the authority of the various parlements by restoring their jurisdictional influence. But the two were interlocked because the ministers were dependent on their client systems to reinforce the administrative networks throughout the country, and because factional shifts at court had implications for the rise and fall of particular ministers and their policies. The king was teaching the nobles that their merit would now include new values and skills, and he was expanding their concept of service from a face-to-face loyalty in the presence the 'gaze' of the king to service to a king not-present but embodied in the administration. Rowlands says they provided up to 14 per cent of the total cost of war but Lynn reckons that it was as much as 25—30 per cent of the cost — a veritable tax on the nobility. The Sun King had clearly inaugurated something new and forward-looking, but it entailed a certain contradiction of goals and rhetoric.
These are genuine problems. According to this view, the king ruled by collaborating with socially powerful elites — at court, in Paris and in the provinces.
Louis xiv facts
Calling Hamscher and myself the 'founders' of this tendency, he concludes that 'little or nothing in the pages to come supports the optimistic view of revisionists, notably that of William Beik, who portrayed the ruling class of Languedoc as allied with Louis XIV, nurtured, protected and "basking in the sun" of his benign rule'. He believed that provincial society could take care of itself, except when disorder or the need for tax revenues required intervention. These are genuine problems. Perhaps a more important effect of the Huguenot dispersal was the increased hatred of France that the Huguenot emigres stirred up in their adopted Protestant countries. But neither side wanted to go that far. The Pontchartrains functioned through family ties and personal allies. The secretaries of state, the chancellor, the royal financial hierarchy, the tax farmers and the private munitioneers all had overlapping and conflicting functions.
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