He further acknowledges that, key concerns of community development, such as understanding the dynamics of intergroup relationships, and considering the changes characterizing the planning of development activities, can be best described using system theory.It is therefore fundamental to ensure effective participation for the ultimate empowerment of the people, through elimination of impediments to effective participation as is the main concern of this essay. It is from this background that the writers intend to argue that, community participation is an elementary ingredient in ensuring empowerment of the community and sustainability of community development projects. Consequently, the subsequent agricultural seasons were characterised by marked apathy on the part of women who were now afraid of assisting their husbands to get money for them to marry second wives. So, as result, the effort did not yield positive results. The explanation of these principles shall be expatiated in the discussion. Weaver Press. It was jointly determined that, using local equipment such as bullock carts, distributors and community based supervision would be the most appropriate way of distributing food in the local context. Mason, B. Community Development: A historical Perspective. It could be in the form of contribution of ideas, priorities, resources, time or decision making, implementation and evaluation. Institutional Reforms for Community Empowerment in Africa. Kanyenze, D.
Zimbabwe: The Past is the Future. The writers concur with this scathing criticism not only because of the absence of visible improvement in the autonomy of the previously disenfranchised black masses at the community level, but also because of the fact that, this could have been a scapegoat or an ideological misrepresentation by a particular class of blacks who by chance elbowed out the colonial regimes and superimposed themselves onto the very exploitative positions of their former masters but this time against their fellow blacks.
Their argument is premised on the positive ramifications of culture, particularly the relevance of indigenous knowledge from the local people. This culminated in the stifling of the efforts to empower women through these community projects. Oakley, P.
It problematises the interplay of numerous dynamics which militate against empowerment of participants and beneficiaries in poverty alleviation projects. The writer therefore recommends that, there should be operationalisation of the principles of the participatory approach in order to eliminate the discussed constraints, if tangible community empowerment which is the fundamental goal of community development is to be attainable.Culture and Development. The paper also provides evidence of a clear sense of agency on the part of community members of regeneration partnerships and counters models which suggest regeneration partnerships are simple mechanisms of social control which diffuse community activism. Practical implications — The paper offers practitioners and policy makers insight into the community experience of participation in regeneration partnerships and proposes methods and policy refinements which can improve empowerment outcomes and assist community participation to achieve higher levels of influence over statutory partners. Meagher, P. Zed Books. Apart from empowerment being a participatory approach principle, the writers note that, it is vivid from this definition that, the inextricable nexus between community participation and empowerment points to the need for a review of the factors that usually act as obstacles to participation in order to proffer mitigation or recommendations that would precipitate into unconstrained empowerment of the community. The immediate reaction by these disgruntled women, who were left to suffer with the children, was suicide. Community Development: A historical Perspective. The authors have adopted this definition in this research presentation because it stresses the inclusion of the community members in almost all the phases of the project cycle. Anthropology, Development and the Postmodern Challenge. It assumes that people are their own assets, and the role of the external agent is to catalyse, facilitate or "accompany" the community in acquiring power. Eade, D. However, it uses this specific experience to comment on generic issues in the community empowerment field and to elaborate theory on the relationship between the citizen and the state. Kaufman, M and Alfonso, H. Kanyenze, D.
There are diverse perspectives of participation in development projects, which reflect in many cases differences in objectives for which participation is advocated.