Single quotation marks academic writing

However, sometimes a publisher's or even an author's style may take precedence over such general preferences.

Single quotation marks examples

Aside from papers in linguistics, philosophy, and theology, there is no justification for the use of single quotation marks except for a quote within a quote. Here are two sentences punctuated according to the logical view: "The only thing we have to fear", said Franklin Roosevelt, "is fear itself. Another use of single quotation marks: People in certain academic disciplines are accustomed to using single quotation marks on particular terms and phrases, which is contrary to what the vast majority of writers do in the United States. My quotation, however, does not make this clear, and so I have inserted the necessary information enclosed in square brackets. Here is an example, cited from my own book Language: The Basics Trask : Chelsea was born nearly deaf, but In fact, there are really only two to keep in mind. In British English, all punctuation is placed outside the quotation marks unless it is part of the quoted text. Now notice something else which is very important: a quotation is set off by quotation marks and nothing else. I am referring mostly to CNN. This is not wrong, but it is hardly ever necessary, since the square brackets already make it clear what's going on.

Authors with disciplines in the social and behavioral sciences usually use the American Psychological Association APA style guide, and writers in the biological sciences and engineering fields refer to the Council of Science Editors CSE handbook. When to use double or single quotation marks is even trickier.

Single quotation marks academic writing

The conventional view, in contrast, insists on placing most other punctuation marks inside a closing quote, regardless of whether they form part of the quotation. These are not part of their quotations, and so the logical view places them outside the quote marks, while the conventional view places them inside, on the theory that a closing quote should always follow another punctuation mark. Is this article helpful? Fitzgerald, , p. Epigraphs are inscriptions that are often used on buildings, tombstones, or other objects. Now notice something else which is very important: a quotation is set off by quotation marks and nothing else. But how about their slimmer offshoot, single quotation marks? Evaluation of milk urea nitrogen as a management tool to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy farms. As usual, these different conventions for closing punctuation complicate things. I'm writing in a very specialized field; should I use quotation marks for specialized terms?

In much specialist writing, including linguistics, philosophy, and theology, terms with particular meanings that are unique to that subject are often enclosed in single quotation marks: The inner margins of a book are called the 'gutter.

This last example illustrates another point about quotations: the quotation inside the quote marks begins with a capital letter if it is a complete sentence, but not otherwise.

quotation marks rules

This happens when the passage you are quoting contains a mistake of some kind, and you want to make it clear to your reader that the mistake is contained in the original passage, and has not been introduced by you. Anything which is not part of those exact words must be placed outside the quotes, even if, as in the last example, this means using two sets of quotes because the quotation has been interrupted.

quotation marks examples sentences

British English is just the opposite. Quotation Marks in Reference Lists Different style guides have different protocols for using quotation marks in reference lists.

When to use triple quotation marks

Quote Your Quotes The next time you want to quote someone within a quote, call upon your friend, the single quotation mark. The conventional view, in contrast, insists on placing most other punctuation marks inside a closing quote, regardless of whether they form part of the quotation. Block quotations are typically either indented or put in a smaller font. There are three ways of fixing this. The logical view holds that the only punctuation marks which should be placed inside the quotation marks are those that form part of the quotation, while all others should be placed outside. Here are some examples, all of which are meant to be direct quotations: We have not recieved [sic] your letter. If you need to change a small letter to a capital, you put that capital inside square brackets. If personality is an unbroken series of successful gestures, then there was something gorgeous about him, some heightened sensitivity to the promises of life, as if he were related to one of those intricate machines that register earthquakes ten thousand miles away.

Inappropriate use of scare quotes can create ambiguity in your writing. There are two schools of thought on this, which I shall call the logical view and the conventional view.

single or double quotation marks uk

Block quotes should not be enclosed in quotation marks — instead, set them off from the main text as a separate indented paragraph.

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Quotation Marks and Direct Quotations : Quotations